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Iran's glory, has always been its culture.

Iran (also known as Persia) is a country in the Middle East, and has been home to numerous dynasties of empires dating back over 2,000 years. Iran has exercised significant influence throughout West and Central Asia for much of its history.

History[]

Sometime in 1997, Iraq went to war with Iran.[1]

Government[]

Iran is a republic in which the president, parliament (Majles) and judicial branch share power with the Supreme Leader, the chief religious authority of Iran. The politics of Iran take place in a framework that officially combines elements of theocracy and presidential democracy.

Society[]

Geography[]

Geographically, Iran is located in West Asia and borders the Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Gulf of Oman. Its mountains have helped to shape both the political and the economic history of the country for several centuries. The mountains enclose several broad basins, on which major agricultural and urban settlements are located. Until the 20th century, when major highways and railroads were constructed through the mountains to connect the population centers, these basins tended to be relatively isolated from one another.

Typically, one major town dominated each basin, and there were complex economic relationships between the town and the hundreds of villages that surrounded it. In the higher elevations of the mountains rimming the basins, tribally organized groups practiced transhumance, moving with their herds of sheep and goats between traditionally established summer and winter pastures. There are no major river systems in the country, and historically transportation was by means of caravans that followed routes traversing gaps and passes in the mountains. The mountains also impeded easy access to the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea.

With an area of 1,648,000 square kilometers (636,000 sq mi), Iran ranks seventeenth in size among the countries of the world. Iran shares its northern borders with several post-Soviet states: Armenia, Azerbaijan,[a] and Turkmenistan. These borders extend for more than 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi), including nearly 650 kilometres (400 mi) of water along the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. Iran's western borders are with Turkey in the north and Iraq in the south, terminating at the Arvand Rud.

The Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman littorals form the entire 1,770 kilometres (1,100 mi) southern border. To the east lie Afghanistan on the north and Pakistan on the far south. Iran's diagonal distance from Azerbaijan in the northwest to Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast is approximately 2,333 kilometres (1,450 mi).

Climate[]

Iran has a variable climate. In the northwest, winters are cold with heavy snowfall and subfreezing temperatures. Spring and fall are relatively mild, while summers are dry and hot. In the south, winters are mild and the summers are very hot, having average daily temperatures in July exceeding 38 °C (100.4 °F). On the Khuzestan Plain, summer heat is accompanied by high humidity.

In general, Iran has a continental climate in which most of the relatively scant annual precipitation falls from October through April. In most of the country, yearly precipitation averages 850 millimetres (33.5 in). The major exceptions are the higher mountain valleys of the Zagros and the Caspian coastal plain, where precipitation averages at least 1,000 millimetres (39.4 in) and usually in the form of snow. In the western part of the Caspian, rainfall exceeds 1,500 millimetres (59.1 in) annually and is distributed relatively evenly throughout the year. This contrasts with some basins of the Central Plateau that receive ten centimeters or less of precipitation. Iran is considered colder than neighboring countries such as Turkey and Armenia, due to its higher elevation.

Major Cities[]

Tehran - 12 Million[]

Tehran is the capital of Iran, in the north of the country. Its central Golestan Palace complex, with its ornate rooms and marble throne, was the seat of power of the Qajar dynasty. The National Jewelry Museum holds many of the Qajar monarchs' jewels, while the National Museum of Iran has artifacts dating back to Paleolithic times. The Milad Tower offers panoramic views over the city.

Mashhad - 3.8 Million[]

Mashhad is a city in northeast Iran, known as a place of religious pilgrimage. It's centered on the vast Holy Shrine of Imam Reza, with golden domes and minarets that are floodlit at night. The circular complex also contains the tomb of Lebanese scholar Sheikh Bahai, plus the 15th-century, tile-fronted Goharshad Mosque, with a turquoise dome. Museums within the shrine include the Carpet Museum, with many rare pieces.

Behind the scenes[]

Iran is a real world country in the Middle East. The Iran-Iraq War was also a real conflict fought from 1980 to 1988.

References[]

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